Monday, 29 May 2017

Syllogism I – What is a Syllogism and What are the Different Types of Quantifiers in Syllogism Questions?

In this post, we will discuss what is a syllogism and what are the different types of quantifiers in syllogism questions for SBI PO, IBPS PO and SSC CGL Exams
What is a Syllogism?
What is a Syllogism? Does this question always pop in your head? Well, syllogism is one of the most interesting topics in the reasoning section which often appears in competitive exams such as SBI PO, IBPS PO and SSC CGL Exam. Solving and scoring syllogism questions is easy if you know "What is a syllogism?"  

In this post, we will discuss, what is a syllogism?, What are the different types of quantifiers in syllogism questions and few tricks in syllogism which will help you understand syllogism questions easily and solve them in less time. 
What is a Syllogism?
What is a Syllogism?
                                                             
Syllogism is an instance of a form of reasoning, in which a conclusion is drawn from a set of given or assumed statements; a common or middle term is present in the statements but not in the conclusion, which is assumed to be true. 
Example: All dogs are animals.
                All animals have four legs.
                Therefore all dogs have four legs.

What kind of syllogism questions are asked in SBI PO, IBPS PO and SSC CGL Exams?

Syllogism questions contain two or more statements. These statements are followed by conclusions. We need to find which conclusion logically follows from the statements. Syllogism questions, most of the time appear to be illogical or they might go against the facts, but we must assume those statements to be true. Syllogism questions are based on the fact whether the conclusions are true or not in the context of statements.

Example:  
What is a Syllogism?
Statements: All cats are bat.
                     All bats are tables.

[In the above example, you will notice that the statements vary from commonly known facts.
The statement - All cats are Bats, is illogical but you need to assume it to be true to select the logical conclusion that follows.]

Conclusions: (i) Some tables are bat
                        (ii) No cat is a table.

[From the above statements we can conclude that conclusion (i)- Some tables are bats, is the right conclusion that logically follows the above-given statement]

Types of Quantifiers in syllogism questions

A quantifier is essentially used to express the quantity of the given sets.

Different types of quantifiers:
1. All/ Every – The term all refers to all the objects in the given sets. All/ every is referred to as Universal quantifier as it refers to each object in the set.

Example: All A are B – It means all the elements in the set A are B.

2. No/ None – The term no refers to all the objects in the given sets. No/ none is referred to as Universal quantifier as it refers to each object in the set.

Example: No A is B – It means that each and every element in A is not the part of set B.

3. Some/ Few – The term some refers to a certain number of objects in the set. It is normally referred to as a particular quantifier.

We need to understand the range of the quantifier 'some'.
What is a Syllogism?
Example: Some A’s are B – It means that one A or more than one A’s are B.

In this post, we have seen- what is a syllogism? And different types of quantifiers in syllogism questions.
In the next post, we will discuss with different methods to solve syllogism questions.

Do write in the comment section on how this blog helped you to understand the topic syllogisms.

Stay tuned for more on syllogism questions. 
What is a Syllogism?
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